types of participle

It’s been a while since I put up a big list of grammatical terms, so here are a list of the different types of participle. A participle is that part of speech where a verb is used as a noun or an adjective. If the verb is “drive”, then the participle is “driver” or “while driving”.

In second year Greek, a number of other uses for the participle are introduced:

  • adjectival – the driver
  • adverbial (temporal – when he was driving / causal – because he was driving) –
  • telic / final – indicates purpose: he was there to drive
  • conditional – used in the if clause of a conditional statement – if you drive
  • concessive – though we were driving
  • instrumental – by driving
  • complementary – completes the idea of the man verb in the sentence: I keep on driving
  • imperatival – always be driving
  • periphrastic – this one is a bit trickier: it’s used with the verb “to be” to express when the participial action is taking place; you have been driving
  • of attendant circumstance – introduce a new action, and focus attention back on the main verb in the sentence: drive, and sort out your problems
  • participial absolute – a separate clause to the rest of the sentence: after he had driven, they gathered in the car park

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